Two New Essays on Reconstruction Era Politics

Two essays of mine went live this week.

My latest essay for Muster analyzes the political evolution of Alabama Congressman Charles Hays and his support for the Civil Rights Act of 1875. You can read it here.

I reviewed Allen C. Guelzo’s new book Reconstruction: A Concise History for H-SHGAPE (Society for Historians of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era) that can be read and downloaded here.

Cheers

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News and Notes: September 13, 2018

Beaufort, South Carolina. Photo Credit: Nick Sacco

Here’s an update on some upcoming projects and life in general:

1. I received a promotion at work earlier this summer and have moved up from a “Park Guide” to a “Park Ranger” at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site. The promotion has been great so far. I’ve picked up more administrative duties but am now essentially the park’s education coordinator and historian. We’ve been doing some great programming initiatives over the past couple years and I’m excited to see where things go from here as I take on an increased leadership role at the park.

2. I was in Beaufort, South Carolina, a few weeks ago to visit Reconstruction Era National Monument and tour the area’s historic sites. I had served as the site’s social media manager from April 2017 to April 2018 (which you can read about here) in addition to my regular duties at the Grant site, but I had never been to South Carolina before. It was great to meet the staff at REER and get a better grasp of the local context in which Reconstruction played out within the South Carolina lowcountry.

3. I wrote an essay about Ulysses S. Grant’s Personal Memoirs and how they’ve shaped my interpretation of his life while working as a Park Ranger and educator. The essay will appear as a chapter in an upcoming book on the American Civil War in popular culture that is being edited by Chris Mackowski of Emerging Civil War and will be published by Southern Illinois University Press in early 2019. It will be the first essay of mine to show up in a book and I’m thrilled to see how the final product will turn out.

4. I have another book chapter that will be appearing in an upcoming anthology about St. Louis culture and history through Belt Publishing. This one is slated for release in Summer 2019. I went a little outside my usual research interests for this piece, which explores the Italian American community in St. Louis at the turn of the 20th Century and examines a case of race and class conflict within that community. There’s also a little family history in the essay; during research I did some genealogy and discovered that my Great-Great Grandfather Julio Sacco had immigrated to St. Louis from Sicily around 1890. He makes a short appearance in the essay. In any case, there’s an amazing lineup of essayists from St. Louis who’ve contributed essays to this anthology and if you’re interested in all things St. Louis you’ll want to get a copy of this book.

5. My journal article manuscript on Missouri Congressman John Richard Barret was slated for publication last year, but due to circumstances beyond my control the manuscript’s publication was delayed. Thankfully I can now say that the article will be published in the November 2018 issue of The Confluence, a scholarly journal published by my Alma mater, Lindenwood University.

6. I have another manuscript on Ulysses S. Grant’s relationship with slavery before the Civil War that has been accepted for publication by a top Civil War journal, but I have numerous revisions that still need to be made. More details on this article in the future.

7. My next essay for the Journal of the Civil War Era‘s “Muster” blog will go live on Tuesday the 18th. I’ll examine Alabama Congressman Charles Hays and his support for the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

8. I have a pretty substantial book review essay on Allen Guelzo’s Reconstruction: A Concise History that will be published with H-Net most likely within the next week.

9. I will be moderating a panel on Civil War politics in Illinois on October 5th for the Conference on Illinois History at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum.

10. I have two upcoming talks in St. Louis about U.S. Grant and slavery before the Civil War and the Missouri-Kansas Border War on October 13th and October 16th.

11. Finally, I will soon start working on an essay for the Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association about Grant’s Personal Memoirs that should be published either late this year or early next year.

I think that’s it for now!

Cheers

Hannah Simpson Grant’s Influence on Ulysses S. Grant

I fielded an interesting question the other day about Ulysses S. Grant and the people who influenced him throughout his life. The visitor asked me where and how General Grant developed the cool, calm, and steely demeanor that has long been a part of his popular lore. How was Grant able to handle the horrific bloodshed and danger of war in such a collected manner, never getting too high or too low about the state of affairs during his generalship and presidency?

It’s a fascinating, complex question with multiple answers that are suitable, but I think the visitor was surprised when I suggested that Hannah Simpson Grant may have played a role in her son’s overall disposition.

Historians don’t know a lot about Hannah Grant, and few primary source documents exist that are from her perspective (here’s an 1879 newspaper interview with her that is interesting yet ambiguous). What is know about Hannah and how she carried herself is very similar to that of her oldest son. Consider the below passage from Brooks Simpson’s book Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph Over Adversity, 1822-1865 (2000):

Hannah Grant went about her chores and responsibilities quietly, so much so that one must search carefully for her traces. [Ulysses Grant’s friend] Dan Ammen recalled that she was “a cheerful woman, always kind and gracious to children.” But affection–or at least open displays of it–were rare in the Grant household. Ulysses told Ammen that he never saw his mother cry. Nor did Hannah brag as was her husband’s custom: she was modest, retiring, and restrained. Unlike [Grant’s father] Jesse, she “thought nothing you could do would entitle you to praise,” as one observer recalled.” (7)

Insert “Ulysses” where “Hannah” is mentioned and the similarities are pretty clear.

Cheers

Every Social Media Manager a Historian: Reflections on Interpreting History Through NPS Social Media

My latest essay for the Journal of the Civil War Era‘s blog, “Muster,” is now live. I wrote about my experiences running the Facebook and Twitter accounts for Reconstruction Era National Monument in Beaufort, South Carolina, from April 2017 to April 2018. I discuss a few strategies I learned for crafting effective social media posts during that time and the importance of historical sites making a dedicated effort to interpret the past on social media.

Being the social media manager for REER was a high honor and something I take great pride in as a public historian. The chance to participate in the formative stages of a new National Park Service unit’s overall development is rare; that REER is the first NPS unit to make Reconstruction a central interpreting focus of the site is all the more significant. So it was pretty exciting when I got a call from folks in the NPS Southeast Region seeing if I’d be interested in helping to promote the site online. The reason I got that call, I should add, is because of my social media presence on Twitter and my writings on this blog. Someone noticed my historical scholarship and my passion for Reconstruction, and that in turn opened this door for me.

I can’t stress enough to readers how time-consuming it can be to create a good social media post. In addition to having a strong knowledge of a given historical topic, one must work to write and re-write drafts of their posts so that they are clear, concise, and interesting. They also need to find compelling images and make sure those images are copyright-free. For REER I had to come up with an idea, conduct research, write a draft, have that draft reviewed by historians at the NPS Southeast Region, make any necessary changes, and then schedule the post for publication on Facebook and Twitter.

I was in a unique situation with REER because I am based in St. Louis and have never been to South Carolina before. I have a good general knowledge of the Reconstruction era but needed to read up on South Carolina’s particular circumstances during that period (Thomas Holt, Willie Lee Rose, Richard Zuczek, Stephen Wise, and Lawrence S. Rowland helped me a lot). Since the site is currently closed to the public, there were few events going on and I wasn’t part of the daily, on-the-ground experiences at the site. I therefore focused largely on historical content–both nationally and relative to Beaufort–and the historiography of Reconstruction studies. As I mention in the essay, REER had more than 1,100 Facebook followers and 700 Twitter followers by the time I finished. Not bad! It was sometimes challenging to find enough time to consistently update and keep an eye of REER’s social media accounts, but overall I’m proud of the work I did and I hope I can keep helping the site in some capacity moving forward.

Cheers

How Historians and Musicians Receive Similar Training in College

Yours Truly Performing at Off Broadway in St. Louis. Photo Credit: Rick Miller Photography

Over the years numerous friends and family, knowing that I studied history in college and now work as a public historian for a living, have come to me with a range of questions about people and events from the past. I think more often than not I have failed to give them a satisfactory answer to their questions. That’s because in most cases they’ve asked questions about time periods in which I have only a basic and limited understanding. As fascinating as I find the Roman Empire, the Medieval Era, the Great Depression and the New Deal, and other periods in history, I just don’t have the specialized knowledge to give an accurate, informative answer in most cases. And yet oftentimes these questions are prefaced with a comment like, “you’re a historian, so you should be able to help me…”

The reality is that most professional historians specialize in a particular time period, and that time period can be quite small in scope depending on the individual historian’s interests. I think non-historians sometimes assume that the primary goal of studying history is the accumulation of facts. As historian David McKenzie pointed out on Twitter, historical knowledge for many is “simply cramming facts into one’s head to be spit out at a moment’s notice.” While learning facts and establishing historical accuracy are certainly important facets of any history degree program, there are many other elements of good historical practice. This includes (but is not limited to) the ability to search for and interpret the larger context surrounding a particular event, the need to understand change over time, the importance of crafting solid research questions, the talent to be a good reader, writer, and speaker, and the training needed to become well-versed in both primary and secondary source material of a particular, specialized historical era.

When I struggle to answer my friends’ and family’s questions, I point out that historians are in some ways similar to musicians. My area of expertise is nineteenth century U.S. history–particularly the Civil War Era–and that is my “musical instrument,” so to speak. You wouldn’t say “oh, you’re a musician! Go over and play that guitar” without first asking that musician what instrument they play and if they could play guitar. And just because a musician can play guitar doesn’t mean they can play tuba or do a freestyle rap on the spot. The situation is similar with historians. I can talk about the Battle of Shiloh or the Civil Rights Act of 1866, but I’d have a more difficult time giving a detailed answer about, say, the Battle of D-Day or the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As much as I’d love to give detailed answers and remarkable facts about every event in human history, the limits of human intelligence require a more specific and concentrated focus.

Music education students in college are required to learn how to play a string instrument, a brass/woodwind instrument, and sing in a choir regardless of their prior expertise. They also learn music theory and develop an ability to read sheet music whether it’s in treble clef or bass clef (or alto clef!). As future teachers of band, orchestra, and choir in a k-12 setting, this training prepares them to help students learn how to play an instrument, read sheet music, and perform together in an organized creation of musical sound. History students at the undergrad level receive a similar curriculum in that they take courses in U.S., European, and World history during their training. They receive a broad instruction that enables them to educate younger students about a wide swath of human history. But like the musician with a specific instrument that they specialize in and perform with in concerts, the historian finds a time period to specialize in and contribute to through public talks, the creation of scholarship, and, in my case as a public historian, by interpreting history to a wide range of publics.

Cheers

 

Upcoming Presentation on U.S. Grant at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library & Museum

…Happening this Thursday! When I visited the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library & Museum as a high schooler just a few months after its grand opening in 2005, never in my wildest dreams could I have imagined that I’d ever give a presentation there someday. If you’re in the area, come on out for what will hopefully be an interesting and informative talk about Ulysses S. Grant’s life and how Americans have remembered him since his death in 1885. We’ll be on the library side of the Presidential Library and Museum.

Cheers

NCPH 2018: Where Do We Go From Here?

Last week I attended the 2018 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Public History in Las Vegas. It was my fifth straight NCPH conference and my first time in Las Vegas, which in itself was quite a treat as I took some time to take in the city’s sights and sounds. As a pretty active member of NCPH I ended up spending lots of time during the conference in committee meetings and planning for my own presentation in the session, “Rewiring Old Power Lines: The Challenge of Entrenched Narratives.” I did have the chance, however, to attend a range of sessions during the conference. Overall I enjoyed my experience and left with a lot of satisfaction about my participation in NCPH. I do have questions and concerns moving forward, however. What follows are three thoughts about the conference and the state of public history:

What is the meaning of the term “Community”?: One of the strong points of attending NCPH conferences is that presenters are constantly exploring ways to bring the ideals and values of public history to new audiences. Every year there seems to be passionate discussion about three different questions:

1. How to rewrite narratives to incorporate the perspectives of previously marginalized historical actors in interpretive programs.

2. How to bring new audiences to public history sites, particularly young people and people of color.

3. How to establish a community-oriented culture of inclusion and equity at public history sites.

I believe these concerns are fundamental to the public history profession, and they’ll always play an important role in how the field defines itself. Effectively addressing these questions is a great challenge without clear answers. I confess, however, that this year I felt like some of the conversations I heard were akin to listening to a song on repeat. Sometimes I felt like asking, “okay, these concerns are valid, but I’ve heard these same thoughts for the past five years. What are we actually doing to push the field in a new direction?”

Part of the problem, I think, is that the term “community” is sometimes thrown around in an irresponsible way. Like the term “general public,” there really is no such thing as a “community.” There are only “communities,” and any discussion about “meeting the needs of the local community” really should be pluralized. Take, for example, my hometown of St. Louis. St. Louis County has 90 municipalities, all of which have their own histories and present-day needs. St. Louis city is a separate legal entity from the county and has its own neighborhoods and ethnic enclaves. Nearby Jefferson County and especially St. Charles County have experienced explosive suburban growth over the past twenty years. Several counties in Illinois also have a close association with St. Louis. All of these areas fall under the term “St. Louis Metro Area,” but as a public historian I can’t really talk about “meeting the needs of the St. Louis community.” The area is too big and the population is too unique to be described in historical terms as a single community. Ferguson, Chesterfield, and Affton are all in St. Louis County, for example, but have different histories and different needs. In reality there are some communities in St. Louis that are well served by their public history institutions and others that are not. So when we talk about meeting the needs of a local population, we need to start from the premise that there are many communities in a given locality we should be reaching out to and serving.

Concerns about Mid-Level Professionals: I think NCPH has done a wonderful job of making its annual meeting a welcoming place for graduate students and new professionals. Both groups benefit from a mentoring program, a special outing the first night of the conference, the Speed Networking session, and an environment that is friendly to new attendees. In general I think students and new professionals get a lot out of the NCPH Annual Meeting.

As I experience my own transition away from the term “new professional,” however, I’ve been thinking more and more about mid-level professionals and what the organization is doing to meet their needs. Those of us who have been in the field between four and ten years are most likely still in the field because we were fortunate to find jobs to support ourselves. But what happens when you’ve got your foot in the door with that entry-level position but can’t move up? I am greatly concerned about the number of mid-level professionals that I spoke with that are struggling to find career growth and new opportunities to put their skills to practice. For many, there is no career track to speak of. Throughout the conference I thought about a former cohort from graduate school who left the public history field to find a job in sales a couple weeks earlier. Another NCPH conference-goer who recently retired mentioned that his position isn’t being filled. I also admit to my own concerns about my future in public history.

What can NCPH do to help mid-level professionals find the career growth they seek? I’m not sure, but it’s my hope that the Professional Development Committee (of which I am co-chair) along with other NCPH committees can begin discussing strategies for the future. Additionally, while I could not attend working group 2, “Negotiating Power Lines: Economic Justice and the Ethics of Public History,” the tweets from that panel were fascinating and hint at some interesting ideas about promoting better pay for public historians.

Props to South African Public History: A significant highlight of the conference was having the chance to attend session 36, “South African Recovery from Cruel Pasts: Using Creative Arts to Visualize Alternatives.” Members of Rhodes University’s Isikhumbuzo Applied History Unit came all the way from South Africa to present at the conference, and it was a real treat. Historian Julia Wells and historians/performers Masixole Heshu and Phemelo Hellemann discussed the 1819 Battle of Grahamstown and efforts by the Applied History Unit to bring this history to life through creative arts, including poetry, storytelling, and pantsula dancing, a type of dancing invented in South Africa in the 1950s and 1960s. Dancers Azile Cibi and Likhaya Jack demonstrated pantsula dancing for all participants, and for the first time at a conference I ended dancing myself! They also demonstrated scenes from a play the Applied History Unit developed to portray the story of “Pete,” a native South African who was able to save his mother, a POW during the Battle of Grahamstown, and return her from bondage (true story). The session was extremely fascinating and a real treat to attend.

(Another thing I noticed about this session was that the presenters went into the crowd, introduced themselves, and thanked each audience member for attending their session. I was struck by the kindness of this small act and think presenters at future history conferences should embrace this practice).

All in all, NCPH 2018 was a great time and I look forward to next year’s meeting. For now, it’s back to the grid.

Cheers